Al-Qanṭara <p>Al-Qantara is an international peer-reviewed journal published periodically. Al-Qantara seeks a reassessment of all the human and social sciences. The need for interdisciplinary approaches as a key to reinvigorating and integrating both teaching and learning is increasingly recognized in the academy. It is becoming increasingly clear that research is interdisciplinary. Our Journal is interested to promote interdisciplinary research in the world, to promote the exchange of idea, and to bring together researchers and academics from all the countries.</p> en-US (Dr. John zedong) (Dr. Joseph) Wed, 13 Mar 2024 04:21:50 +0000 OJS 60 Unveiling the Magical Realism of Pakistan: A Thematic Analysis of A Firefly in the Dark and Midnight Doorways <p>Academic scholarship on Magical Realism has focused majorly on Latin America and, later, on other nations around the world, Pakistani Magic realist literature, however, has not garnered enough scholarly attention. The irreal has long been a part of Pakistani oral and literary tradition, especially in Urdu literature (Kanwal and Mansoor 2021). Recently, Pakistani Anglophone writers have started experimenting with the genre of Speculative fiction by appropriating local folklore and mythological worlds and motifs inspired by the Islamic and South Asian civilizations. To generate an understanding of the use of magical realism in Pakistani literature, this study has analyzed two contemporary Pakistani Magic Realist texts, Malik (2021) and Haider (2018). Through closed reading and thematic coding the data was coded into descriptive categories. The study first evaluated the selected texts by analyzing the narrative strategies through which the magical had been integrated with realism in the narrative. The study also mapped the origin of the sources of magical tropes employed by both writers and the distinct reflection of Pakistani customs and norms embedded with the marvellous. This study contributed towards the localization of the genre of Magic Realism to the geolocation of Pakistan by establishing the distinctness of Pakistani Magic realist works.</p> Hajra Khalid Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Sat, 13 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Deciphering the Water Symbol in T.S. Eliot's "The Four Quarters" and Ian McMillan's "Canal Life" <p><em>In this study, the ‘water’ symbol has been deciphered in the poems of T.S. Eliot’s “The Four Quartets” and Ian McMillan’s “Canal Life” and also shed light on their symbolist nature of poetry. The symbol 'Water' has always been considered a prominent literary metaphor because it can represent multiple meanings, such as life, purification, existential reflection, and metamorphosis. It is always open to multiple interpretations. The Four Quartets and Canal Life have explained, interpreted, and illustrated the symbol of 'water' through textual and comparative analyses. A comparative analysis has been conducted to find out the similarities and contrast in the attainment of the ‘water’ symbol in their poems: ‘Canal Life’ by McMillan and ‘The Four Quartets’ by Eliot. It highlights the different ways in which ‘water’ can serve as a symbol in poetry, ranging from a literal representation of community and continuity to a complex metaphor that involves eternal, spiritual, and existential characteristics. The poets demonstrate the many complex and varied characteristics of water as a metaphor, emphasising its ability to provoke a broad spectrum of emotions, thoughts, and introspection within the framework of poetic expression.</em></p> Kamran Zeb, Safaa Falah Hasan, Syeda Aiman Saghir Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Sat, 13 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Tess of the d’Urbervilles: Hardy’s Journey towards Postmodernism <p><em>This research work attempts to explore the novel Tess of the d’Urbervilles from postmodern perspective. Tess of the d’Urbervilles transforms the concept of Victorian society, marking a transition from Victorianism to Postmodernism. The study reveals that Hardy portrays Tess more a postmodern than a Victorian character that she challenges Victorian chastity and virginity as meta- narratives in Tess of the d’Urbervilles. She defies the notion of female chastity by bearing an illegitimate child and rejecting the social stigma attached to it. She challenges traditional expectations regarding women's purity, class boundaries, and the consequences of social judgment. She refuses to conform to a forced marriage, asserting her agency and autonomy in the face of social constraints. In the novel, she resists patriarchal control and dominance, including her father, Alec d'Urberville, and Angel Clare. Tess's tragic fate is shaped by social expectations of purity and virtue, which she ultimately rebels against. Tess of the d’Urbervilles transforms the concept of Victorian society, marking a transition from Victorianism to Postmodernism. This research analyses themes of Tess’s rebellion against social norms: religion, morality, sexuality, and purity. Tess's character challenges such conventions, facing harsh consequences for daring to defy them. Postmodern theory is applied to the text, as such the proposed study is qualitative. This study intends to explore the postmodernist viewpoints of Jean Francois Lyotard, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard and Richard Rorty. Selected passages from the text are interpreted keeping in view postmodern theorists. Research approach is inductive. Research technique is interpretive content analysis. Tess of the d'Urbervilles can be analysed through a psychoanalytic lens, particularly in its exploration of the unconscious mind, repressed desires, and the impact of social expectations on individual behaviour.</em></p> Hunar Shah, Dr. Samina Ashfaq, Kaleem Ullah Abid, Huma Khan, Maryam Munir, Shah Zamin, Fateh Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the methodology of Da'wah: The prophetic model and its relevance to the contemporary era <p><em>Islam is a peaceful&nbsp;religion that&nbsp;teaches love,&nbsp;sincerity,&nbsp;and brotherhood to all&nbsp;mankind. Propagating&nbsp;Islam by&nbsp;beneficial&nbsp;means&nbsp;is called Da'wah&nbsp;and is one of the strategies&nbsp;favored by the&nbsp;Holy Prophet&nbsp;(SAW) to spread Islam.&nbsp;He&nbsp;adopted a&nbsp;new and&nbsp;better strategy&nbsp;and,&nbsp;in&nbsp;a short time&nbsp;the&nbsp;light of Islam has spread&nbsp;throughout&nbsp;the&nbsp;world. This study applies a qualitative methodology to examine Quranic verses, Hadiths, scholarly interpretations, and historical accounts in order to identify the main ideas and methods of Da'wah that Prophet Muhammad (SAW) used. The study also includes analysing the prophetic strategies, and educational aspects, highlighting how flexible it is for contemporary situations.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>Firstly, the current&nbsp;study&nbsp;shares valuable knowledge&nbsp;on prophetic Da'wah&nbsp;methodology and highlights the importance of&nbsp;Da'wah&nbsp;in&nbsp;everyday&nbsp;life with&nbsp;relevant&nbsp;examples.&nbsp;Secondly, this research is primarily focused&nbsp;on the&nbsp;Divine Prophet's Da'wah strategy&nbsp;to be addressed and&nbsp;implemented&nbsp;in&nbsp;the&nbsp;21st century.&nbsp;Moreover,&nbsp;the life of&nbsp;the&nbsp;Holy Prophet (SAW) is a great source of&nbsp;learning and his Da'wah&nbsp;techniques must be learned and&nbsp;embraced as&nbsp;preaching Islam. It’s&nbsp;the&nbsp;duty of&nbsp;every&nbsp;Muslim&nbsp;man&nbsp;and&nbsp;woman.&nbsp;This&nbsp;treatise offers&nbsp;immense knowledge&nbsp;of the Prophetic Da'wah&nbsp;techniques&nbsp;that&nbsp;are fruitful examples for all mankind. Finally, this paper concludes that these</em><em> Da’wah principles are useful and desirable&nbsp;not only for Muslim-non-Muslim relations, but also&nbsp;for improving and&nbsp;maintaining Muslim-Muslim relations.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Hammad, Laraib Zahid, Rabia Unber Malik, Dr. Abdul baqi, Neelam Shad Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Leaders’ Negative Behavior on Employee Silence with the Mediating role of Psychological Safety: A Study on Teachers of Higher Education Institutes of Pakistan <p><em>Leaders’ negative behavior is a dysfunctional leadership behavior that impacts its targets badly as well as the whole organization. On the basis of the conservation of resources (COR) theory, the present study adds knowledge on the impact of leaders’ adverse behavior. Mainly, a mediation model has been proposed wherein negative leadership predicts employees' silent behavior through psychological safety, with the leader. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire from 643 teachers working in the thirty-one private sector universities of Pakistan through proportionate and convenience sampling approach. Results show a positive relationship between leaders’ negative behavior (Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Authoritative and Abusive) and Employee Silence. Further Psychological safety significantly mediates relationship between leaders’ negative behavior and employee silence. When psychological safety is reduced due to negative behavior, it contributes in increasing employee silence. The findings imply that negative behavior of leaders is prevailing in higher education institutes that requires immediate attention stressing the need of psychological trainings in higher education institutes of Pakistan.&nbsp; </em></p> Noreen Ajmal, Dr. Safia Bano, Dr. Saubia Ramzan Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Suicidal Ideation among Individuals with Borderline and Narcissistic Trends: A cross-cultural study of Chinese and Pakistani adolescents and young adults <p>Suicide is a major public health problem, among adolescents and young adults.&nbsp; In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between the traits of Borderline personality disorder (BPD), narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), and suicidal ideation and behaviors.&nbsp; Adolescents and young adults mean age of 23.6 (SD = 6.1) were screened with standardized questionnaires 1, Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI-19), 2, Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI-53), and 3, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-16) assessing suicidal ideation, traits of Borderline personality disorder and Narcissistic personality disorder.&nbsp; Descriptive statistics, parametric tests, Pearson correlation coefficients, and reliability analysis were utilized for differences in the population mean scores.&nbsp; Pakistanis have a significantly lower mean score of 5.1 than Chinese (mean score of 6.9) on NPI-16 (t = -7.22, p &lt; 0.001), indicating a substantial difference between the two populations.&nbsp; Similarly, Pakistani participants have a lower mean score of 4.2 than Chinese participants' mean score of 7.6 on BPI-53 with inverse significant differences (t = -15.61, p &lt; 0.001), and large effect size (d = 1.02).&nbsp; However, Pakistanis have a significantly lower mean score (5.5) than the Chinese mean score of 7.7 for suicidal ideation with an inverse statistically significant difference (t = -5.25, p &lt; 0.001) and a modest effect size (d = 0.37).&nbsp; These findings emphasize the importance of considering cultural context when interpreting psychological assessments and designing interventions aimed at addressing suicidality and mental health issues.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Suicide, Suicidality, Borderline Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder and Psychological assessment</p> Tariq Ahmed, Xing Qiang, Mudassar Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Analytical Study of "Flight in the Cage" <p><em>Flight in a Cage is a story of a spiritual journey. It is described as an ideal story. The author mentioned very important Sufi points which described in the metaphorical style. In the story, the poems of&nbsp; Sufi poets, sayings and references of elders are presented, such as the great Sufi leader Hazrat Inayat Khan, Hazrat Baba Bulhe Shah, Hazrat Shah Hussain and Hazrat sultan baho. </em></p> Dr. Rehana kausar (Corresponding Author), Dr. Shaista Hameed Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Women Empowerment Services By Government from 2000-2013 (A Case Study of Sargodha Division) <p><em>The present study was conducted to find out the evaluation of women empowerment services by government from 2000-2013. Service basically refers to action taking for help other or facilitates other and empowerment refers to make someone enable and bring him/her in mainstreaming. Major objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the government services given by the governmental institutions that taking into account the empowerment of receiver women and analyze the after and before condition of women that are the beneficiaries. By nature, research was quantitative, self-structured interview schedule were used for the collecting of information. A sample of 240 respondents was taken from the division Sargodha. Multi-stage sampling method was used for the collection of data. At first stage researcher select Sargodha city purposely. At second stage researcher select four Tehsils (Sargodha, Sahiwal, Shahpur, Bhalwal) randomly by using chit method. At third stage from each tehsil one vocational training institution was selected conveniently. At fourth stage 60 respondents were taken from each vocational training institution conveniently. In this way a sample of 240 respondents were taken. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. It was found that women were very much satisfied with the services given by vocational training institutions and they feel considerable change in their life after getting training. Furthermore, these training make them enable and independent and enhance their decision making power. </em></p> Ishaque Ahmed, Yasir Javed, Saqib Aziz Sani, Zeeshan Munawar, Malik Kaleem Ullah Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Thu, 06 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Impact of Elevated Government Debt on Economic Growth in Developing Nations <p><em>This study aims to empirically investigate the impact of borrowing on the GDP of developing economies after the financial crisis. Additionally, it aims to examine the significance of the investment channel of national debt in affecting economic growth. Another objective is to analyze the impact of debt on total investment. This study also assesses the influence of macroeconomic factors such as Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF), government debt, bond yields, foreign trade balance, government revenues, and GDP on the growth of developing countries. The research is based on panel data from 99 countries (classified as developing countries by the World Bank) spanning from 2000 to 2020, covering periods before and after financial crises. The Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) technique is employed for estimation purposes. The first model revealed a negative relationship between government debt and GDP, indicating that a percentage change in government debt is associated with a decrease in economic growth. This finding suggests that high levels of government debt may impede economic expansion, potentially due to crowding-out effects on private investment and increased fiscal vulnerabilities. The second model presented a contrasting result, indicating a positive relationship between government debt and investment (Gross Fixed Capital Formation, GFCF) in specific circumstances. It suggests that, under certain conditions, government borrowing may stimulate investment activities and infrastructure development, potentially contributing to economic growth. The analysis highlighted temporal dynamics in investor behavior before and after financial crises. It suggests that the relationship between government debt and investment may vary over time, influenced by economic conditions and external shocks. Understanding these temporal dynamics is crucial for formulating effective policy responses and managing fiscal policy in developing economies. The findings of the present study validate the conclusions drawn from previous research in developing countries, highlighting the adverse effects of government debt on economic growth. By better understanding the implications of high debt levels, policymakers can formulate strategies to manage debt effectively and promote sustainable economic development. </em>Top of Form</p> Mehaluddin Siddiqui, Syed Zia Abbas Rizvi, Khurram Iftikhar, Muhammad Imran Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Mon, 03 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Environmental Emissions and Economic Growth: Evidence from Highly Polluting Countries <p>The studies in the field of energy and environmental economics focus on examining the determinants of environmental emissions namely &nbsp; , &nbsp;or ecological footprint while analyzing the environmental emissions economic growth relationship. This study examines the impact of green growth and other determinants on four types of environmental emissions.&nbsp; The study is carried out for a sample of highly polluted countries over the period 1990 to 2018. The second-generation panel data methods such as Pesaran (2007) test for cross-section dependence, Pesaran and Yamagata (2008) test for slopes homogeneity/heterogeneity, Bai and Carrion (2009) unit root test, Westerlund &amp; Edgerton's (2008) co-integration-test, and cross-sectional augmented Auto-regressive distributive lag model are used for dynamic analysis. Results reveal that there is a stable long-run relationship between variables of interest. The financial development is found to increase &nbsp;emissions. Moreover, higher per capita GDP growth deteriorates the environment. The results model also suggests that an increase in environment-related taxes, non-renewable energy, and per capita GDP increases emissions. Similarly, results indicate that per capita consumption of ecological footprint increases with the increase of green growth and non-renewable energy.</p> Aziz Ullah, Dr. Mirajul Haq, Dr. Malik Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Analysis of Bano Qudsia's short story "Black Drongo" in the Context of Racial Discrimination <p><em>Critical race theory is an interpretive approach that intends to unfold the deeper and underlying meanings of the color discrimination or racism and provides a methodology to understand the racism, history, and related discriminative elements. The general meaning of racism is to divide people into different groups based on their biological makeup. According to this theory, people living in different regions have their hereditary structure or appearance, skin, hair, eye color, shape of eyelids, nose and have different identity from the people living in other regions. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic are known as key figures of critical race theory (CRT). Bano Qudsia, female writer has significance in the history of Urdu short story writing. Her short story "Black Drongo" is written in the post-colonial period of the sub-continent. The main theme of this fiction is social discrimination based on color. This article is a critical analysis of the short story “Black Drongo” in the context of racial discrimination. </em></p> Dr. Ghulam Farida, Dr. Tahir Nawaz, Dr. Maria Termezi Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 K-12 Teachers work stress: a systematic review of journal articles published from 2011 to 2022 <p>This study reviewed research papers in the Web of Science database published between 2011 and 2022. The review synthesized K–12 teacher work stress literature and summarized methods and limitations to analyse trends in the area. The review showed that the basic contents investigated in the published articles are stress copying strategies, stress reduction interventions, and the effects of work stress on teachers' personal characteristics. Besides, a limited number of studies on K–12 teacher’s work stress were also observed. In terms of research methods, a significant proportion of published papers employed quantitative research methodologies, followed by qualitative and mixed-method studies. Most of the reviewed articles were conducted in elementary and secondary schools in conjunction. Self-report methods are only suited for assessing teachers' subjective psychological stress, not biological stress. Further studies should integrate subjective and biological stress measurements using ambulatory assessment methods to analyse stress in authentic educational settings.</p> Yohannes Bisa Biramo, Zhenhong Wang Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Sat, 27 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study of Evaluation of Teaching Practice at B. Ed Level <p>Teaching practice is important for the prospective teacher. It improves the teaching skill and ultimately the effectiveness of teaching and learning. The present study was carried under the title <strong>“A study of evaluation of teaching practice at B.Ed. level.” </strong>In order to match the world and be the part of future, Pakistan needs to focus on this issue. Teaching Practice in Pakistan has mostly been pressed with the notions of academic achievement, leaving less or no place for including teaching practice as a desired objective of education. The need is to raise for the teaching practice in teachers through teachers training and refresher courses. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of teaching practice. A questionnaire was developed which was administer to a sample which comprised of 20 supervisors. The data was collected and analyzed by calculating %ages. The main conclusion was, majority of supervisor were of the opinion that teaching practice is necessary for trainee teachers. It is suggested that the study may be extended to the other campuses where classes for B.Ed. are held.&nbsp; The questionnaire may include factors helpful in analyzing the teaching practice. The number of trainee teacher’s assignment to each supervisor should be suitable.</p> Zhong Wanjuan, Muhammad Junaid, Shagufta Bibi, Aafia Rasool (Corresponding Author) Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Fri, 05 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Harmonizing Reason and Revelation in Islamic Thought: Historical Discourse on the Debate among Muslim Philosophers <p><em>This academic study begins a thorough investigation of the historical debate about the unity of revelation and reason in the Islamic tradition. Muslim thinkers, from the classical to the medieval periods, have long debated the complex relationship between reason and divine guidance. This comprehensive summary draws from a wide range of theological and philosophical frameworks to attempt to shed light on the complex character of this continuing discussion.</em></p> <p><em>The first part of the research explores the basic writings of early Muslim philosophers, including Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi, who established the framework for later talks about the coexistence of revelation and reason. It examines their efforts to balance the philosophical traditions of Greece and Islam, demonstrating the blending of many schools of thought that defined this early era.</em></p> <p><em>The abstract travels across the Islamic world of the Middle Ages, exploring the contributions of great thinkers such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes). These intellectuals addressed the problems that exist between revelation and reason, offering a variety of approaches to resolving seeming contradictions. The abstract clarifies the complex metaphysical frameworks these philosophers developed, examining how they attempted to reconcile the indisputable authority of divine revelation with the pursuit of knowledge via reason.</em></p> <p><em>The abstract also discusses mysticism's place in this discussion, recognizing the Sufi tradition's distinct viewpoint on the integration of revelation and reason. It looks at how Sufi philosophers like Ibn Arabi added experiential elements and spiritual insights to the continuing conversation, providing a different method of bridging the gap between the revealed and the rational.</em></p> <p><em>This research attempts to disentangle the complex and dynamic character of the debate on harmonizing reason and revelation within the Islamic tradition by examining important philosophical texts and theological treatises. The abstract ends by emphasizing the discourse's ongoing relevance, since modern Muslim thought is still referencing these philosophical pillars in its pursuit of a harmonious fusion of revelation and reason in the contemporary world.</em></p> Saira Jabeen Malik, Syed Muhammad Rehan Ul Hassan Gelani, Razia Shabana, Dr. Chaman Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Wed, 13 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship of Education with Languages: Policy Perspective of Pakistan from Historical Discourse <p><em>Language is an important factor in social, political, cultural, and economic systems of a country. In the wake of globalization, the role of dominant languages is becoming more visible as the indigenous languages are facing the threat of desertion by their own speakers. Language, at one level, can be viewed as a linking force of communication and at another level a symbol of identity and nationalism. In Pakistan, which is a multilingual country, the issue of language becomes more crucial. It is further complicated as Pakistan has a colonial legacy of English. Thus, the language policy and planning had to deal with the challenges of determining the status of colonial language, national language, and regional languages. Unfortunately, the issue of language did not get much attention in terms of its planning in Pakistan. There is no separate document dealing with the language policy in the country. The education policies, however, would sometime have a section or two on language policy. The only exception to this is a detailed section on language policy in the National Education Commission report (1959). This paper critically examines the language policies reflected in the national Education policies and reports of conferences and commissions; highlighting the gaps between professed policies and actual practices, and reviews the factors responsible for lack of proper implementation of these policies. </em></p> Ms. Shereen Gul, Dr. Aqlima Naz, Dr. Adeela Rehman, Ms. Rukhsana Yasmeen Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Wed, 13 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Efficacy of Music-Based Pedagogies in Developing Communication Skills: Perspectives of Early Childhood Educators <p><em>Students in the field of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) possess distinct requirements that necessitate the implementation of tailored instructional approaches in order to foster the development of their foundational knowledge. Music-based pedagogies have been extensively studied for their effectiveness in teaching literacy, civics and life skills at all levels. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is still developing in Pakistan. Thus, there is no structure to adopt music-based teaching strategies to improve ECCE students' communication skills.</em></p> <p><em>Study examined how early childhood education (ECCE) teachers use music-based pedagogies to help toddlers to develop language and necessary communication skills. This qualitative case study used Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to analyze three urban early childhood care and education (ECCE) institutions in Karachi, Pakistan. The study examined how students in ECCE interact with more knowledgeable people. The study involved ECCE classroom observations during the practice and semi-structured interviews. Data was also collected via document analysis. Data was interpreted using thematic analysis.</em></p> <p><em>The findings show that early childhood education (ECCE) educators understand how to use music-based teaching strategies to improve communication in three- to four-year-olds. The lack of supervision, musical materials, and music-focused teaching approaches in early childhood care and education (ECCE) and pre-service teacher training programs were notable issues. The report suggests assessing the ECCE curriculum's music pedagogy content and implementation to address these issues.</em></p> <p><em>Key words: Pedagogy, Music Pedagogy, Communication, ECCE, Training, Skills</em></p> Fariha Rehan, Syeda Sana Zaidi, Muhammad Imran, Shabana Akhtar, Dr. Aalumgir Shah, Shazia Hameed Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Wed, 27 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 "Harmonizing Identities: Multivocality and Bakhtinian Dialogism in Hamid's Novel, 'The Reluctant Fundamentalist' <p><em>This article presents a critical study of the novel "The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007)" by Mohsin Hamid through the lens of Bakhtinian Dialogism. Grounded in Bakhtin's theoretical framework, the study scrutinizes the narrative architecture and the intricate web of dialogic interplay among characters. The objective is to dissect how the novel embodies Bakhtin's concepts of dialogism and polyphony. Through particular analysis, it uncovers how the exchanges and debates among characters intricately mirror the multifaceted aspects of identity, the dynamics of power, and the clashes of cultures within the backdrop of globalization. Ultimately, the study contends that "The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007)" emerges as a heartbreaking manifestation of Bakhtinian dialogism, underscoring the imperative of embracing diverse viewpoints and nurturing dialogue in the contemporary interconnected environment.</em></p> Muhammad Nasir, Mussarat Shaheen, Sobia Parveen, Dr. Shabnum Sayyed Hussain, Dr. Sundas Tahreem, Muhammad Noman Ur Rehman (Corresponding Author) Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction to Manuscripts “Umdat Al Jawahir of Sheikh Abdul Latif” and its place in exegetical literature <p><em>This article contains an introduction to the manuscripts and its place in the exegetical literature. It consists of two parts; the first part is an introduction to the manuscript. The name of the manuscript is “Umdat Al Jawahir Wa Durar Yani Muqaddamat Al Quran Wa Rawabit Al Suwar”. And this name is written by the author himself on the first page of the manuscript. The author of this manuscript is Sheikh Abdul Latif. The author has indicated it in five places of his manuscript. Only one copy of this manuscript was with the scholar’s father Sheikh Saad Ud Din, Mufti Jamia Haleemia Darra Pezu Lakki Marwat. And there is no other copy of it. The exact date of the beginning and end of this manuscript cannot be determined. But it is traced that he wrote this manuscript in the year  during the vacations of Ramadan and Shaban.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The second part of this article deals with the place of manuscript in exegetical literature. This manuscript is written in Arabic language. But there are few poems in Urdu and Persian and the style of the manuscript is in accordance with the rules of exegesis, in which the author uses verses and hadiths to make his point more authentic. The author distinguished himself from other mufassireern in some aspects of the manuscript while some of the aspects of his manuscript are in line with the traditional manuscripts. All the discussions in the manuscript are coherent. In addition, the author has also used the terms of Ilme Balaghat, while following the rules of sarf wa nahwa in the expressions.</em></p> Abdun Nasir, Muhammad Asad, Muhammad Usama, Muhammad Farhan Ur Rehman (Correspondence Author), Abdur Rahman, Dr Mufti Maqsood ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Wed, 08 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phenomenological Inquiry into Postgraduate Students' Perceptions of Academic Supervision and Feedback Experiences <p><em>This study investigates the impact of supervision and feedback on the quality of research conducted by postgraduate students, focusing on their experiences and perspectives. Five participants from different universities in Karachi, Pakistan, were interviewed using a phenomenological approach. The findings reveal a range of experiences, with some feeling supported by their supervisors while others felt neglected. Differences were observed in communication styles, feedback procedures, and levels of support, particularly between public and private sector university postgraduate students. Despite variations, participants emphasized the importance of advocacy, emotional support, and mentorship from their supervisors. The study underscores the complexity of the supervisor-supervisee relationship and highlights the need for standardized communication, supervisor training, and a supportive environment to enhance postgraduate students' academic performance and experience.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Noor Mohammad, Mehnaz Aslam, Tehseen Anjum, Shahzad Haider (Corresponding author), Muhammad Hashim, Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Mon, 08 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Analytical Study of Fahmida Riaz's Novel "Godavari" <p><em>Fahmida Riaz was born on 28 July 1946 and died on 21 November 2018. She was a Pakistani progressive writer, poet, social activist for human rights and women's rights. Among his famous works are “Godavari”, “Khat Mirmooz” and “Khana</em></p> <p><em>Aab-e-Gul”. “Khana Aab-e-Gul” is an Urdu translation of the famous Masnavi of the Persian language by Maulana Room. The unique author of 15 literary books has been surrounded by controversies throughout her life. When her collection “Badan Darida” came out, she was accused of using sexy and sensitive language. She has translated the books of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai and Sheikh Ayaz from Sindhi language into Urdu. Fed up with the dictatorship of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Fehmida Riaz sought refuge in India from Pakistan, where she spent many years. Her collection of poetry is his crime and describes the persecution of General Zia-ul-Haq. She has described her experience in her collections. This Article is Written about her novel“Godavari”..</em></p> Dr. Aziza Saeed, Dr. Khizra Tabassum, Dr. Zeenat Afshan, Dr. Sobia Manzoor,, Rida Batool Naqvi, Syed Azwar Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Sun, 05 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bridging the Gap: Secondary School Teachers' Perspectives on Behavioral Barriers to Academic Success <p><em>Secondary school students face obstacles to their academic progress due to behavioral issues. This study looks at students' behavioral issues from the perspective of the teachers who work in schools. Studies have demonstrated that behavioral issues impact student's academic achievement. It has been discovered that teachers encounter behavioral issues when instructing students in the classroom. Students' academic progress has decreased as a result of this practice. For this project, a quantitative approach was used to gather teacher data. Using simple random sampling, 135 instructors were chosen from all secondary schools in District Malir, Karachi, Pakistan. Using SPSS 22, the data screening and respondent demographics were investigated; the Smart PLS was used to analyze the measurement and structural model and hypotheses testing. The investigation results showed that student' behavioral issues about their parents' attitudes, behavior, education, and relationships with family significantly influenced their academic progress. To help students overcome these obstacles and improve their academic performance, it is advised that teachers concentrate on these concerns and have discussions with parents and guardians.</em></p> Dr. Nazir Ahmad, Dr. Saima Iqbal, Dr. Zahid Ali, Dr. Rukshanda Jabeen, Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Fri, 26 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Contemporary Challenges to the Concept of Nikah and Divorce in Pakistan: Critical Discourse of Judicial Activism and Religious Scholars Viewpoint <p><em>Family is the cornerstone of a peaceful society, and Nikah is the rightful way of constituting a family. Marriage and divorce in Pakistan are currently facing issues that have led to significant discussions, especially over judicial activity and the viewpoints of religious academics. This study examines the complex difficulties by analyzing the interaction between legal systems and religious interpretations. Judicial activism in Pakistan has significantly influenced the definition of Marriage and divorce. Courts are more frequently involved in resolving matters concerning women's rights, gender equality, and safeguarding individual freedoms under Islamic law. This involvement has sparked discussions among legal experts and religious leaders, influencing the changing field of family law. Religious experts are dealing with the conflicts between traditional interpretations of Islamic law and the changing social dynamics in present-day Pakistan. The study analyses different perspectives within religious communities about topics including women's rights in Marriage, reasons for divorce, and the influence of religious beliefs on family law. This critical discourse explores the complexity of Nikah and divorce in Pakistan, focusing on the interplay between legislative reforms, judicial activity, and religious factors.</em></p> Dr. Akbar Ali, Dr. Bashir Ahmad, Dr. Nasim Hayat, Dr. Anwarullah, Dr. Sardar Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Al-Qanṭara Sat, 16 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000